Interpersonal Trust and Emotion as Antecedents of Cooperation: Evidence From Korea

August 1, 2011 Leave a comment

Interpersonal Trust and Emotion as Antecedents of Cooperation: Evidence From Korea

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 41, Issue 7, pages 1603–1631, July 2011

DONGSEOP LEE, ALEXANDER D. STAJKOVIC, BONGSOON CHO

In this field study (n = 514), we examined the relationships among interpersonal trust, interpersonal emotion, cooperation, and the characteristics of both the trustor and trustee at work. We found that interpersonal trust and interpersonal emotion were positively related to willingness to cooperate among members working in teams. We also found that interpersonal emotion was positively related to interpersonal trust. Interpersonal trust and interpersonal emotion, in turn, were predicted by 3 trustee characteristics: ability, benevolence, and integrity. Together, interpersonal trust, interpersonal emotion, and trustee characteristics accounted for 70% of the variance in willingness to cooperate among the team members

Advertisements
Categories: Trust

Competent Enough, But Would You Vote for Her? Gender Stereotypes and Media Influences on Perceptions of Women Politicians

August 1, 2011 Leave a comment

Competent Enough, But Would You Vote for Her? Gender Stereotypes and Media Influences on Perceptions of Women Politicians

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

MICHELLE C. BLIGH,*, MICHÈLE M. SCHLEHOFER, BETTINA J. CASAD, AMBER M. GAFFNEY

Though research has demonstrated that media coverage of men and women politicians differ, fewer studies have examined the dual influence of gender stereotypes and types of media coverage in influencing public perceptions of women politicians. Study 1 (N = 329) examined how pre-existing attitudes toward women leaders and valence of media message impacted perceptions of a woman senator and evaluations of the media source. Study 2 (N = 246) explored how media focus on a woman politician’s personality or ability impacted perceptions of her warmth/likability and competence. Results suggest the media has particular influence on judgments of women politicians’ likability (the “competent but cold” effect), providing evidence that women politicians need to be vigilant in monitoring their media depictions.

Categories: Stereotype

The beauty of simple models: Themes in recognition heuristic research

August 1, 2011 Leave a comment
The beauty of simple models: Themes in recognition heuristic research
Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 6, No. 5, July 2011, pp. 392–395

Daniel G. Goldsterin, Gerd Gigerenzer

The advantage of models that do not use flexible parameters is that one can precisely show to what degree they predict behavior, and in what situations. In three issues of this journal, the recognition heuristic has been examined carefully from many points of view. We comment here on four themes, the use of optimization models to understand the rationality of heuristics, the generalization of the recognition input beyond a binary judgment, new conditions for less-is-more effects, and the importance of specifying boundary conditions for cognitive heuristics.

Keywords: recognition heuristic, less-is-more, memory, model comparison.

Categories: Implicit cognition

Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognition and Affect

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognitionand Affect

 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
 Volume 100, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 407-425
Daryl J., Bem

The term psi denotes anomalous processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. Two variants of psi are precognition (conscious cognitive awareness) and premonition (affective apprehension) of a future event that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known inferential process. Precognition and premonition are themselves special cases of a more general phenomenon: the anomalous retroactive influence of some future event on an individual’s current responses, whether those responses are conscious or nonconscious, cognitive or affective. This article reports 9 experiments, involving more than 1,000 participants, that test for retroactive influence by “time-reversing” well-established psychological effects so that the individual’s responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Data are presented for 4 time-reversed effects: precognitive approach to erotic stimuli and precognitive avoidance of negative stimuli; retroactive priming; retroactive habituation; and retroactive facilitation of recall. The mean effect size (d) in psi performance across all 9 experiments was 0.22, and all but one of the experiments yielded statistically significant results. The individual-difference variable of stimulus seeking, a component of extraversion, was significantly correlated with psi performance in 5 of the experiments, with participants who scored above the midpoint on a scale of stimulus seeking achieving a mean effect size of 0.43. Skepticism about psi, issues of replication, and theories of psi are also discussed.

 

Author Keywords: psi; parapsychology; ESP; precognition; retrocausation

Categories: Implicit cognition

Mapping the moral domain.

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Mapping the moral domain.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 366-385. doi: 10.1037/a0021847

Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire on the basis of a theoretical model of 5 universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/Care, Fairness/Reciprocity, Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, and Purity/Sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so we present new findings about morality: (a) Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a 5-factor structure of moral concerns; (b) convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant; and (c) we establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Ethics

In the worst rather than the best of times: Effects of salient intergroup ideology in threatening intergroup interactions.

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

In the worst rather than the best of times: Effects of salient intergroup ideology in threatening intergroup interactions.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 307-320. doi: 10.1037/a0023152

Vorauer, Jacquie D.; Sasaki, Stacey J

Three studies demonstrated that a salient multicultural ideology increases hostile treatment of threatening outgroup interaction partners. The effect of multiculturalism on hostile behavior was evident regardless of whether threat was operationalized in terms of disagreement with an outgroup partner on important social issues (Studies 1 and 3) or rejection by the partner (Study 2). Moreover, the results clearly point to the learning orientation fostered by multiculturalism—as opposed to other factors such as enhanced other-focus, group-level attributions, or focus on differences—as the critical mediator of its effect on hostile behavior under threat. Thus, it appears that multiculturalism enhances the expression of hostility because it prompts individuals to really engage with and attach meaning and importance to threatening behaviors exhibited by outgroup members. The effects of multiculturalism were distinct from those of anti-racism and color-blindness, which set in motion processes that in many respects are directly opposite to those instantiated by multiculturalism. The findings highlight that the behavioral implications of multiculturalism may be quite different in conflictual interactions than they have previously been demonstrated to be in less threatening exchanges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Behavioral Econ.

The Development and Validation of the Multi-Dimensional Identification Scale (MDIS)

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

The Development and Validation of the Multi-Dimensional Identification Scale (MDIS)

 

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 41, Issue 7, pages 1632–1658, July 2011

JASON STONER, PAMELA L. PERREWÉ, CHARLES HOFACKER

Based on recent identity research, we developed the Multi-Dimensional Identity Scale (MDIS), and the psychometric properties of the MDIS are examined. We report the results of 3 studies used for item generation and analyses and exploratory factor structure analysis (Study 1), confirmatory factor structure analyses (Studies 1, 2, and 3), and construct validity (Study 3). Collectively, these studies illustrate the psychometric properties of a new measure of identity that is multidimensional and adaptable to various identity bases (i.e., organizational, family, social). Based on exploratory and confirmatory studies, our measure demonstrates the same factor structure for organization-based identity and social-based identity and a similar factor structure for family-based identity. Convergent and discriminant validity are demonstrated.

Categories: Identification