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Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

September 23, 2011 Leave a comment

Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

 

Journal of Applied Psychology,

Vol 93(6), Nov 2008, 1314-1334. doi: 10.1037/a0012702

Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D.; Ryan, Ann Marie

 

Abstract
A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

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Categories: Stereotype

Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice

August 6, 2011 Leave a comment

Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice

British Journal of Social Psychology
Volume 49, Issue 1, pages 129–142, March 2010

Rhiannon N. Turner1,*, Richard J. Crisp

Abstract


Recent research has demonstrated that imagining intergroup contact can be sufficient to reduce explicit prejudice directed towards out-groups. In this research, we examined the impact of contact-related mental imagery on implicit prejudice as measured by the implicit association test. We found that, relative to a control condition, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards elderly people in general. In a second study, we demonstrated that, relative to a control condition, non-Muslim participants who imagined talking to a Muslim stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards Muslims in general. We discuss the implications of these findings for furthering the application of indirect contact strategies aimed at improving intergroup relations.

According to the contact hypothesis (Allport, 1954), contact between members of opposing groups should lead to more positive out-group attitudes. There has been a great deal of research on intergroup contact in the past half-century, much of it investigating whether contact works in a range of intergroup contexts and with a variety of different target groups (e.g. Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Recently, work on intergroup contact has focused on two important issues. First, there is a growing interest in the different types of intergroup contact that might be effective at reducing prejudice (e.g. Turner, Hewstone, & Voci, 2007; Wright, Aron, McLaughlin-Volpe, & Ropp, 1997). Second, recent research has investigated the diverse potential consequences of intergroup contact, revealing that intergroup contact may be associated with more positive implicit out-group attitudes (Aberson & Haag, 2007; Turner, Hewstone et al., 2007). In this paper, we integrate these two areas of research by investigating whether a new indirect form of intergroup contact, imagined intergroup contact, predicts more positive implicit out-group attitudes.

Categories: Stereotype

Competent Enough, But Would You Vote for Her? Gender Stereotypes and Media Influences on Perceptions of Women Politicians

August 1, 2011 Leave a comment

Competent Enough, But Would You Vote for Her? Gender Stereotypes and Media Influences on Perceptions of Women Politicians

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

MICHELLE C. BLIGH,*, MICHÈLE M. SCHLEHOFER, BETTINA J. CASAD, AMBER M. GAFFNEY

Though research has demonstrated that media coverage of men and women politicians differ, fewer studies have examined the dual influence of gender stereotypes and types of media coverage in influencing public perceptions of women politicians. Study 1 (N = 329) examined how pre-existing attitudes toward women leaders and valence of media message impacted perceptions of a woman senator and evaluations of the media source. Study 2 (N = 246) explored how media focus on a woman politician’s personality or ability impacted perceptions of her warmth/likability and competence. Results suggest the media has particular influence on judgments of women politicians’ likability (the “competent but cold” effect), providing evidence that women politicians need to be vigilant in monitoring their media depictions.

Categories: Stereotype

Action embellishment: An intention bias in the perception of success.

July 22, 2011 Leave a comment

Action embellishment: An intention bias in the perception of success.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 233-244. doi:10.1037/a0023231

Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Wegner, Daniel M.

Abstract

Naïve theories of behavior hold that actions are caused by an agent’s intentions, and the subsequent success of an action is measured by the satisfaction of those intentions. However, when an action is not as successful as intended, the expected causal link between intention and action may distort perception of the action itself. Four studies found evidence of an intention bias in perceptions of action. Actors perceived actions to be more successful when given a prior choice (e.g., choose between 2 words to type) and also when they felt greater motivation for the action (e.g., hitting pictures of disliked people). When the intent was to fail (e.g., singing poorly), choice led to worse estimates of performance. A final experiment suggested that intention bias works independent from self-enhancement motives. In observing another actor hit pictures of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, shots were distorted to match the actor’s intentions, even when it opposed personal wishes. Together these studies indicate that judgments of action may be automatically distorted and that these inferences arise from the expected consistency between intention and action in agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Stereotype

Stereotype threat spillover: How coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.

Stereotype threat spillover: How coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Vol 99(3), Sep 2010, 467-481. doi: 10.1037/a0018951

Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia K.

Abstract

Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not “in the air.” In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought.

Categories: Stereotype

Perspective-Takers Behave More Stereotypically

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Perspective-Takers Behave More Stereotypically

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume 95, Issue 2, August 2008, Pages 404-419

Adam D. Galinsky, Cynthia S. Wang and Gillian Ku

Abstract

Nine studies demonstrated that perspective-takers are particularly likely to adopt a target’s positive and negative stereotypical traits and behaviors. Perspective-takers rated both positive and negative stereotypic traits of targets as more self-descriptive. As a result, taking the perspective of a professor led to improved performance on an analytic task, whereas taking the perspective of a cheerleader led to decreased performance, in line with the respective stereotypes of professors and cheerleaders. Similarly, perspective-takers of an elderly target competed less compared to perspective-takers of an African American target. Including the stereotype in the self (but not liking of the target) mediated the effects of perspective-taking on behavior, suggesting that cognitive and not affective processes drove the behavioral effects. These effects occurred using a measure and multiple manipulations of perspective-taking, as well as a panoply of stereotypes, establishing the robustness of the link between perspective-taking and stereotypical behavior. The findings support theorizing (A. D. Galinsky, G. Ku, & C. S. Wang, 2005) that perspective-takers utilize information, including stereotypes, to coordinate their behavior with others and provide key theoretical insights into the processes of both perspective-taking and behavioral priming.

Keywords: perspective-taking; stereotypes; behavioral priming; including the other in the self

Categories: Stereotype

Exploring source effects for online sales outcomes: the role of avatar-buyer similarity

June 24, 2011 Leave a comment

Exploring source effects for online sales outcomes: the role of avatar-buyer similarity

Pentina, Iryna; Taylor, David G.

Journal of Customer Behaviour, Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 2010 , pp. 135-150(16)

Abstract:
This exploratory study investigates the role of a virtual salesperson’s similarity to an online buyer in enhancing web site sales outcomes. Our findings show that under low involvement purchase conditions, the avatar’s physical (gender and race) dissimilarity to the buyer positively affects buying intentions, possibly through positive emotions due to the opposite gender attractiveness. Under high involvement conditions, the avatar’s characteristics do not affect buyer cognitive effort, and sales arguments alone determine purchase intentions. For moderate involvement situations, two separate routes of message processing may operate simultaneously: avatar-buyer internal trait similarity (i.e. similar need for cognition) works to facilitate the peripheral route, while argument strength works independently by facilitating the central route to persuasion. We discuss the applicability of the Social Response theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model to online buying, and propose directions for future research.

Categories: Stereotype