Home > Stereotype > Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

 

Journal of Applied Psychology,

Vol 93(6), Nov 2008, 1314-1334. doi: 10.1037/a0012702

Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D.; Ryan, Ann Marie

 

Abstract
A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

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Categories: Stereotype
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