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Archive for September, 2011

Economic emergence: an evolutionary economic perspective

September 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Economic emergence: an evolutionary economic perspective

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
Received 11 February 2011; revised 29 August 2011; Accepted 19 September 2011. Available online 24 September 2011.

John Fostera, J. Stan Metcalfe

Abstract
The standard neoclassical approach to economic theorizing excludes, by definition, economic emergence and the related phenomenon of entrepreneurship. We explore how the most economic of human behaviours, entrepreneurship, came to be largely excluded from mainstream economic theory. In contrast, we report that evolutionary economists have acknowledged the importance of understanding emergence and we explore the advances that have been made in this regard. We go on to argue that evolutionary economics can make further progress by taking a more ‘naturalistic’ approach to economic evolution. This requires that economic analysis be fully embedded in complex economic system theory and that associated understandings as to how humans react to states of uncertainty be explicitly dealt with. We argue that ‘knowledge,’ because of the existence of uncertainty is, to a large degree ‘conjectural’ and, thus, is closely linked to our emotional states. Our economic behaviour is also influenced by the reality that we, and the systems that we create, are dissipative structures. Thus, we introduce the notions of ‘energy gradients’ and ‘knowledge gradients’ as essential concepts in understanding economic emergence and resultant economic growth.

Keywords: Biological analogy; bounded rationality; complex system; constrained optimization; dissipative structure; economic emergence; economic growth; emotions; energy economics; evolutionary economics; entrepreneurship; innovation; institutional change; knowledge; micro-meso-macro; organizational change; rationality; self organization; technological change; uncertainty

 

Categories: Behavioral Econ.

Team leadership

September 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Stephen J Zaccaro, Andrea L Rittman, Michelle A Marks

Available online 15 February 2002.
a Psychology Department, George Mason University, 3064 David T. Langehall, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA

Abstract

Despite the ubiquity of leadership influences on organizational team performance and the large literatures on leadership and team/group dynamics, we know surprisingly little about how leaders create and handle effective teams. In this article, we focus on leader–team dynamics through the lens of “functional leadership.” This approach essentially asserts that the leader’s main job is to do, or get done, whatever functions are not being handled adequately in terms of group needs. We explicate this functional leadership approach in terms of 4 superordinate and 13 subordinate leadership dimensions and relate these to team effectiveness and a range of team processes. We also develop a number of guiding propositions. A key point in considering such relationships is the reciprocal influence, whereby both leadership and team processes influence each other.

 

Categories: Leadership

Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

September 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

Cubero, Christopher G.1 CGC0316@ecu.edu
Source:Work; 2007, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p351-356, 6p.

Document Type:Article.

Subject Terms:*LEADERSHIP
*EMPLOYEES
*ORGANIZATION
*MANAGEMENT
*STRATEGIC planning
DISABILITIES.

Abstract:Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

Categories: Leadership

Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

September 23, 2011 Leave a comment

Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

 

Journal of Applied Psychology,

Vol 93(6), Nov 2008, 1314-1334. doi: 10.1037/a0012702

Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D.; Ryan, Ann Marie

 

Abstract
A meta-analysis of stereotype threat effects was conducted and an overall mean effect size of |.26| was found, but true moderator effects existed. A series of hierarchical moderator analyses evidenced differential effects of race- versus gender-based stereotypes. Women experienced smaller performance decrements than did minorities when tests were difficult: mean ds = |.36| and |.43|, respectively. For women, subtle threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and moderately explicit cues: ds = |.24|, |.18|, and |.17|, respectively; explicit threat-removal strategies were more effective in reducing stereotype threat effects than subtle ones: ds = |.14| and |.33|, respectively. For minorities, moderately explicit stereotype threat-activating cues produced the largest effect, followed by blatant and subtle cues: ds = |.64|, |.41|, and |.22|, respectively; explicit removal strategies enhanced stereotype threat effects compared with subtle strategies: ds = |.80| and |.34|, respectively. In addition, stereotype threat affected moderately math-identified women more severely than highly math-identified women: ds = |.52| and |.29|, respectively; low math-identified women suffered the least from stereotype threat: d= |.11|. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Stereotype

Prospect Theory and Risk-Seeking Behavior by Troubled Firms

September 23, 2011 Leave a comment

Prospect Theory and Risk-Seeking Behavior by Troubled Firms

Journal of Behavioral Finance
Volume 12, Issue 1, 2011, pages 29-40

Doron Kligera & Iris Tsurb

Abstract

We employ Prospect Theory (PT, Kahneman and Tversky [1979]) to explain the relationship between risk and return at the organization level. Our modeling approach addresses shortcomings in previous research approaches. We suggest an alternative approach for inferring the reference point, a key element of PT, and measuring risk, as well as a different representation of the risk-return association taking into consideration a timeline of the firm’s state, its state dependent action, and consequences. Consistent with PT, results using COMPUSTAT data show that firms with returns above their reference levels take less risk than firms with returns below their reference levels.

Keywords : Prospect theory, Organization level, Reference point, Risk preferences, Strategic decision making

Motivational systems in adolescence: Possible implications for age differences in substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviors

September 16, 2011 Leave a comment

Motivational systems in adolescence: Possible implications for age differences in substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviors

Tamara L. Doremus-Fitzwater, Elena I. Varlinskaya, Linda P. Spear

Brain and Cognition
Volume 72, Issue 1, February 2010, Pages 114-123
Adolescent Brain Development: Current Themes and Future Directions

Abstract
Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol use relative to adults, along with notable changes in motivational and reward-related brain regions. After reviewing these topics, the present paper discusses conditioned preference and aversion data showing adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to positive rewarding properties of various drugs and natural stimuli, while less sensitive to the aversive properties of these stimuli. Additional experiments designed to parse specific components of reward-related processing using natural rewards have yielded more mixed findings, with reports of accentuated positive hedonic sensitivity during adolescence contrasting with studies showing less positive hedonic affect and reduced incentive salience at this age. Implications of these findings for adolescent substance abuse will be discussed.

Keywords: Adolescence; Animal model; Motivation; Reward; Drug use

Categories: Risk-Taking