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Archive for July, 2011

Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognition and Affect

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognitionand Affect

 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
 Volume 100, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 407-425
Daryl J., Bem

The term psi denotes anomalous processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. Two variants of psi are precognition (conscious cognitive awareness) and premonition (affective apprehension) of a future event that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known inferential process. Precognition and premonition are themselves special cases of a more general phenomenon: the anomalous retroactive influence of some future event on an individual’s current responses, whether those responses are conscious or nonconscious, cognitive or affective. This article reports 9 experiments, involving more than 1,000 participants, that test for retroactive influence by “time-reversing” well-established psychological effects so that the individual’s responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Data are presented for 4 time-reversed effects: precognitive approach to erotic stimuli and precognitive avoidance of negative stimuli; retroactive priming; retroactive habituation; and retroactive facilitation of recall. The mean effect size (d) in psi performance across all 9 experiments was 0.22, and all but one of the experiments yielded statistically significant results. The individual-difference variable of stimulus seeking, a component of extraversion, was significantly correlated with psi performance in 5 of the experiments, with participants who scored above the midpoint on a scale of stimulus seeking achieving a mean effect size of 0.43. Skepticism about psi, issues of replication, and theories of psi are also discussed.

 

Author Keywords: psi; parapsychology; ESP; precognition; retrocausation

Categories: Implicit cognition

Mapping the moral domain.

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

Mapping the moral domain.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 366-385. doi: 10.1037/a0021847

Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire on the basis of a theoretical model of 5 universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/Care, Fairness/Reciprocity, Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, and Purity/Sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so we present new findings about morality: (a) Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a 5-factor structure of moral concerns; (b) convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant; and (c) we establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Ethics

In the worst rather than the best of times: Effects of salient intergroup ideology in threatening intergroup interactions.

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

In the worst rather than the best of times: Effects of salient intergroup ideology in threatening intergroup interactions.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 307-320. doi: 10.1037/a0023152

Vorauer, Jacquie D.; Sasaki, Stacey J

Three studies demonstrated that a salient multicultural ideology increases hostile treatment of threatening outgroup interaction partners. The effect of multiculturalism on hostile behavior was evident regardless of whether threat was operationalized in terms of disagreement with an outgroup partner on important social issues (Studies 1 and 3) or rejection by the partner (Study 2). Moreover, the results clearly point to the learning orientation fostered by multiculturalism—as opposed to other factors such as enhanced other-focus, group-level attributions, or focus on differences—as the critical mediator of its effect on hostile behavior under threat. Thus, it appears that multiculturalism enhances the expression of hostility because it prompts individuals to really engage with and attach meaning and importance to threatening behaviors exhibited by outgroup members. The effects of multiculturalism were distinct from those of anti-racism and color-blindness, which set in motion processes that in many respects are directly opposite to those instantiated by multiculturalism. The findings highlight that the behavioral implications of multiculturalism may be quite different in conflictual interactions than they have previously been demonstrated to be in less threatening exchanges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Behavioral Econ.

The Development and Validation of the Multi-Dimensional Identification Scale (MDIS)

July 27, 2011 Leave a comment

The Development and Validation of the Multi-Dimensional Identification Scale (MDIS)

 

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 41, Issue 7, pages 1632–1658, July 2011

JASON STONER, PAMELA L. PERREWÉ, CHARLES HOFACKER

Based on recent identity research, we developed the Multi-Dimensional Identity Scale (MDIS), and the psychometric properties of the MDIS are examined. We report the results of 3 studies used for item generation and analyses and exploratory factor structure analysis (Study 1), confirmatory factor structure analyses (Studies 1, 2, and 3), and construct validity (Study 3). Collectively, these studies illustrate the psychometric properties of a new measure of identity that is multidimensional and adaptable to various identity bases (i.e., organizational, family, social). Based on exploratory and confirmatory studies, our measure demonstrates the same factor structure for organization-based identity and social-based identity and a similar factor structure for family-based identity. Convergent and discriminant validity are demonstrated.

Categories: Identification

Action embellishment: An intention bias in the perception of success.

July 22, 2011 Leave a comment

Action embellishment: An intention bias in the perception of success.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vol 101(2), Aug 2011, 233-244. doi:10.1037/a0023231

Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Wegner, Daniel M.

Abstract

Naïve theories of behavior hold that actions are caused by an agent’s intentions, and the subsequent success of an action is measured by the satisfaction of those intentions. However, when an action is not as successful as intended, the expected causal link between intention and action may distort perception of the action itself. Four studies found evidence of an intention bias in perceptions of action. Actors perceived actions to be more successful when given a prior choice (e.g., choose between 2 words to type) and also when they felt greater motivation for the action (e.g., hitting pictures of disliked people). When the intent was to fail (e.g., singing poorly), choice led to worse estimates of performance. A final experiment suggested that intention bias works independent from self-enhancement motives. In observing another actor hit pictures of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, shots were distorted to match the actor’s intentions, even when it opposed personal wishes. Together these studies indicate that judgments of action may be automatically distorted and that these inferences arise from the expected consistency between intention and action in agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Categories: Stereotype

Discursive Leadership: A Communication Alternative to Leadership Psychology

July 22, 2011 Leave a comment

Discursive Leadership: A Communication Alternative to Leadership Psychology

Management Communication Quarterly
March 19, 2008

Gail T. Fairhurst

Abstract

Historically, leadership psychology has dominated the study of leadership. However, with growing attention to leadership discourse, communication, and relational stances, “discursive leadership” is emerging as a clear communication alternative to leadership psychology’s cognitive emphasis. This article previews Fairhurst’s new book, Discursive Leadership: In Conversation with Leadership Psychology, by examining the arguments and research that lend power to a discursive view of leadership.

Categories: Leadership

When fairness neither satisfies nor motivates: The role of risk aversion and uncertainty reduction in attenuating and reversing the fair process effect

July 22, 2011 Leave a comment

When fairness neither satisfies nor motivates: The role of risk aversion and uncertainty reduction in attenuating and reversing the fair process effect

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Article in Press

Sreedhari D. Desai Harris Sondak and Kristina A. Diekmann

Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that procedural justice has many positive effects. However, some evidence suggests that procedural justice may not always have positive effects and may even have negative effects. We present three studies that vary in method and participant populations, including an archival study, a field study, and an experiment, using data provided by the general American population, Indian software engineers, and undergraduate students in the US. We demonstrate that key work-related variables such as people’s job satisfaction and performance depend on procedural justice, perceived uncertainty, and risk aversion such that risk seeking people react less positively and at times negatively to the same fair procedures that appeal to risk averse people. Our results suggest that one possible reason for these effects is that being treated fairly reduces people’s perception of uncertainty in the environment and while risk averse people find low uncertainty desirable and react positively to it, risk seeking people do not. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of procedural justice including the uncertainty management model of fairness, the fair process effect, and fairness heuristic theory.

Highlights
► We examine effects of procedural justice on job performance and satisfaction. ► We find that procedural justice may sometimes fail to lead to positive effects. ► In particular, risk seekers are less likely to respond positively to fairness. ► We argue that bring treated fairly reduces perceived uncertainty. ► Risk seekers dislike this reduction in uncertainty.

Keywords: Procedural justice; Uncertainty; Risk aversion; Performance; Job satisfaction

Categories: Risk-Taking