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Perspective-Takers Behave More Stereotypically

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Perspective-Takers Behave More Stereotypically

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume 95, Issue 2, August 2008, Pages 404-419

Adam D. Galinsky, Cynthia S. Wang and Gillian Ku

Abstract

Nine studies demonstrated that perspective-takers are particularly likely to adopt a target’s positive and negative stereotypical traits and behaviors. Perspective-takers rated both positive and negative stereotypic traits of targets as more self-descriptive. As a result, taking the perspective of a professor led to improved performance on an analytic task, whereas taking the perspective of a cheerleader led to decreased performance, in line with the respective stereotypes of professors and cheerleaders. Similarly, perspective-takers of an elderly target competed less compared to perspective-takers of an African American target. Including the stereotype in the self (but not liking of the target) mediated the effects of perspective-taking on behavior, suggesting that cognitive and not affective processes drove the behavioral effects. These effects occurred using a measure and multiple manipulations of perspective-taking, as well as a panoply of stereotypes, establishing the robustness of the link between perspective-taking and stereotypical behavior. The findings support theorizing (A. D. Galinsky, G. Ku, & C. S. Wang, 2005) that perspective-takers utilize information, including stereotypes, to coordinate their behavior with others and provide key theoretical insights into the processes of both perspective-taking and behavioral priming.

Keywords: perspective-taking; stereotypes; behavioral priming; including the other in the self

Categories: Stereotype

How Do Happy Leaders Enhance Team Success? The Mediating Roles of Transformational Leadership, Group Affective Tone, and Team Processes

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

How Do Happy Leaders Enhance Team Success? The Mediating Roles of Transformational Leadership, Group Affective Tone, and Team Processes

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 41, Issue 6, pages 1421–1454, June 2011

NAI-WEN CHI, YEN-YI CHUNG, WEI-CHI TSAI

Abstract

Extending previous research regarding the relationship between leader positive moods and team performance, the present study examined 2 mediating mechanisms that explain the leader positive moods–team performance linkage: transformational leadership, and positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 85 sales teams (85 team leaders, 365 team members). Structural equation modeling analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. The results showed that leader positive moods not only directly enhanced team performance, but also indirectly led to improved team performance through the explicit mediating process (i.e., transformational leadership) and the implicit mediating process (i.e., positive group affective tone). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Categories: Leadership

Deciding to Decide: Gender, Leadership and Risk-Taking in Groups

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Deciding to Decide: Gender, Leadership and Risk-Taking in Groups

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript

Seda Ertaca, and Mehmet Y. Gurdalb

Abstract
Being the leader in a group often involves making risky decisions that affect the payoffs of all members, and the decision to take this responsibility in a group is endogenous in many contexts. In this paper, we experimentally study: (1) the willingness of men and women to make risky decisions on behalf of a group, (2) the amount of risk men and women take for the group, in comparison to their individual decisions. We observe a striking difference between males and females, with a much lower fraction of women being willing to make the group decision than men. The amount of risk taken for the group is generally lower than in the case where subjects decide for themselves only, indicating a cautious shift. The women that would like to make the group decision and the women that do not are no different in terms of how much risk they take for themselves, nor for their group. For men, on the other hand, we find that the ones who would like to lead tend to take more risk on behalf of the group.

Keywords: gender; group decision-making; risk; leadership; experiments.

Categories: Leadership, Risk-Taking

Gender Differences in Ultimatum Games:Despite rather than due to risk attitudes

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Gender Differences in Ultimatum Games:Despite rather than due to risk attitudes

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript

Aurora Garcia-Gallegoa, Nikolaos Georgantzisb, and Ainhoa Jaramillo-Gutierrezc

Abstract
We analyze experimental data obtained from an ultimatum game framed as a situation of employee-employer negotiation over salaries. Parallel to this, we elicit subjects’ risk attitudes. In the existing literature, it has often been conjectured that gender di_erences in strategicenvironments are partly due to di_erences in risky decision making. Our evidence suggests that both gender and risk-related e_ects co-exist in ultimatum bargaining. However, di_erences in risk attitudes cannot explain gender e_ects in ultimatum bargaining.

Keywords: Gender differences; ultimatum game; risk attitudes

Categories: Risk-Taking

Trust, Trust Games and Stated Trust: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

Trust, Trust Games and Stated Trust: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript

Olof Johansson-Stenmana, Minhaj Mahmudb and Peter Martinssona

Abstract
Levels of trust are measured by asking standard survey questions on trust and by observing behavior in a trust game using a random sample in rural Bangladesh. Follow-up questions and correlations between stated expectations and the amount sent in the trust game reveal that the amount sent is correlated with a general measure of trust. The trust and need motives combined with expectations explains differences in amounts sent, and this highlights the potential importance of motives that cannot be inferred directly from people’s behavior and expectations alone.

Keywords: trust; trust game; social capital; motivations; Bangladesh.

Categories: Trust

What Does the Brain Tell Us About Trust and Distrust? Evidence from a Functional Neuroimaging Study

June 30, 2011 Leave a comment

What Does the Brain Tell Us About Trust and Distrust? Evidence from a Functional Neuroimaging Study

Management Information Systems Quarterly
Vol. 34 Iss. 2(2010)

Angelika Dimoka

Abstract
Determining whom to trust and whom to distrust is a major decision in impersonal IT-enabled exchanges. Despite the potential role of both trust and distrust in impersonal exchanges, the information systems literature has primarily focused on trust, alas paying relatively little attention to distrust. Given the importance of studying both trust and distrust, this study aims to shed light on the nature, dimensionality, distinction, and relationship, and relative effects of trust and distrust on economic outcomes in the context of impersonal IT-enabled exchanges between buyers and sellers in online marketplaces.
This study uses functional neuroimaging (fMRI) tools to complement psychometric measures of trust and distrust by observing the location, timing, and level of brain activity that underlies trust and distrust and their underlying dimensions. The neural correlates of trust and distrust are identified when subjects interact with four experimentally manipulated seller profiles that differ on their level of trust and distrust. The results show that trust and distrust activate different brain areas and have different effects, helping explain why trust and distrust are distinct constructs associated with different neurological processes. Implications for the nature, distinction and relationship, dimensionality, and effects of trust and distrust are discussed.

Categories: Trust

A Review of the Tripartite Structure of Subjective Well-Being: Implications for Conceptualization, Operationalization, Analysis, and Synthesis

June 29, 2011 Leave a comment

A Review of the Tripartite Structure of Subjective Well-Being: Implications for Conceptualization, Operationalization, Analysis, and Synthesis

Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises a global evaluation of life satisfaction and positive and negative affective reactions to one’s life. Despite the apparent simplicity of this tripartite model, the structure of SWB remains in question. In the present review, the authors identify five prominent structural conceptualizations in which SWB is cast variously as three separate components, a hierarchical construct, a causal system, a composite, and as configurations of components. Supporting evidence for each of these models is reviewed, strengths and weaknesses are evaluated, and commonalities and discrepancies among approaches are described. The authors demonstrate how current ambiguities concerning the tripartite structure of SWB have fundamental implications for conceptualization, measurement, analysis, and synthesis. Given these ambiguities, it is premature to propose a definitive structure of SWB. Rather, the authors outline a research agenda comprising both short-term and longer-term steps toward resolving these foundational, yet largely unaddressed, issues concerning SWB.

Categories: Ethics