Archive

Archive for May, 2011

The Relationship Between Person–Environment Fit, Control, and Strain: The Role of Ergonomic Work Design and Training

The Relationship Between Person–Environment Fit, Control, and Strain: The Role of Ergonomic Work Design and Training

Ergonomics is an important workplace practice. Experienced stress in the workplace manifests itself in poor physical and mental health, and is associated with numerous negative personal and organizational outcomes. This study examines ergonomics and ergonomic training and their potential to reduce dysfunctional personal and work outcomes; specifically, job induced-tension and job dissatisfaction directly and through perceptions of person–environment fit and perceptions of control. Quantitative and qualitative findings indicate positive relationships between ergonomic design and ergonomic training with perceptions of person–environment fit and control. Person–environment fit and control fully mediated the relationship between training satisfaction (component of ergonomic training) and job dissatisfaction, while partially mediating the relationship between work-area design (a component of ergonomic design) and job-induced tension.

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Categories: Identification

Justified ethicality: Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behavior

Justified ethicality: Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behavior

Employing a die-under-cup paradigm, we study the extent to which people lie when it is transparently clear they cannot be caught. We asked participants to report the outcome of a private die roll and gain money according to their reports. Results suggest that the degree of lying depends on the extent to which self-justifications are available. Specifically, when people are allowed to roll the die three times to ensure its legitimacy, but only the first roll is supposed to “count,” we find evidence that the highest outcome of the three rolls is reported. Eliminating the ability to observe more than one roll reduces lying. Additional results suggest that observing desired counterfactuals, in the form of additional rolls not meant to determine pay, attenuates the degree to which people perceive lies as unethical. People seem to derive value from self-justifications allowing them to lie for money while feeling honest.

Categories: Ethics

A meta-analytic investigation of virtuality and information sharing in teams

A meta-analytic investigation of virtuality and information sharing in teams

We uncover new insights on the role of virtuality on team information sharing. A new two-dimensional conceptualization of information sharing (Mesmer-Magnus & DeChurch, 2009) enabled us to reconcile past inconsistencies in the virtual team literature. Recasting the findings of 94 studies (total number of groups = 5596; total N approximately = 19,702) into this framework reveals three key insights. First, virtuality improves the sharing of unique information, but hinders the openness of information sharing. Second, unique information sharing is more important to the performance of face-to-face teams than is open information sharing, whereas open information sharing is more important to the performance of virtual teams than is unique information sharing. Third, the effects of virtuality on information sharing are more curvilinear than linear – such that low levels of virtuality improve information sharing, but high levels hider it. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Team; Group; Information sharing; Virtual; Virtuality

Categories: Behavioral Econ.

In defense of the personal/impersonal distinction in moral psychology research: Cross-cultural validation of the dual process model of moral judgment

In defense of the personal/impersonal distinction in moral psychology research: Cross-cultural validation of the dual process model of moral judgment — Adam B. Moore — N. Y. Louis Lee — Brian A. M. Clark — Andrew R. A. Conway

The dual process model of moral judgment (DPM; Greene et al., 2004) argues that such judgments are influenced by both emotion-laden intuition and controlled reasoning. These influences are associated with distinct neural circuitries and different response tendencies. After reanalyzing data from an earlier study, McGuire et al. (2009) questioned the level of support for the dual process model and asserted that the distinction between emotion evoking moral dilemmas (personal dilemmas) and those that do not trigger such intuitions (impersonal dilemmas) is spurious. Using similar reanalysis methods on data reported by Moore, Clark, & Kane (2008), we show that the personal/impersonal distinction is reliable. Furthermore, new data show that this distinction is fundamental to moral judgment across widely different cultures (U.S. and China) and supports claims made by the DPM.

Categories: Ethics

Identity Separation in Response to Stereotype Threat

Social Psychological and Personality Science May 2011vol. 2 no. 3 317-324

Identity Separation in Response to Stereotype Threat

Despite widespread evidence for the performance costs of stereotype threat, little research has examined other psychological consequences, such as disengagement or disidentification. The present studies investigated such consequences of stereotype threat for women working at major international firms. Study 1 found that female leaders who experienced stereotype threat separated their feminine identities from their work-related (i.e., more masculine) identity. Study 2 extended this finding by demonstrating that even when the feminine identity comprised those characteristics that serve women well in the workplace (e.g., being understanding and aware of the feelings of others), female employees still engaged in identity separation after experiences of stereotype threat. These results suggest that stereotype threat is an ongoing concern in the workplace, and they provide evidence for psychological consequences of stereotype threat.

Categories: Stereotype

Ego-depletion and risk behavior: Too exhausted to take a risk.

Social Psychology, Vol 42(1), 2011, 28-38. doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000040

Ego-depletion and risk behavior: Too exhausted to take a risk.

Ego-depletion theory postulates the existence of a mental resource that is necessary for self-regulation. If the resource is diminished by a task involving self-control, achievement in subsequent self-control tasks will be impaired. Three experiments examined whether ego-depletion limits people’s intentionality regarding risk behavior (i.e., choosing an option that has a certain probability of resulting in an adverse outcome). It is assumed that people operating under ego-depletion lack the self-control to deal with these possibly negative outcomes and will, therefore, be prone to avoid risky alternatives, if the decision requires certain levels of responsibility and information processing (i.e., people will choose safe options in an investment scenario with actual pay-offs according to expected values). Results support the assumption that people become risk averse under ego-depletion even when controlling for the alternate assumption that ego-depletion strengthens an existing individual disposition toward risk taking.

Categories: Risk-Taking

The Impact of Post-Apology Behavioral Consistency on Victim’s Forgiveness Intention: A Study of Trust Violation Among Coworkers

Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 41, Issue 5, pages 1214–1236, May 2011

The Impact of Post-Apology Behavioral Consistency on Victim’s Forgiveness Intention: A Study of Trust Violation Among Coworkers

This study extended past research and investigated how post-apology behavioral consistency influences subsequent forgiveness in an organizational setting. Using a sample of 326 working adults, we confirmed that post-apology behavioral consistency is an important boundary condition of the effectiveness of apology in eliciting forgiveness. Despite having received an apology, the victim’s intention to forgive would be low if the perpetrator displayed behaviors inconsistent with the apology made, but would be reinforced by the offending colleague’s behaving in accordance with the apology. People who have initially forgiven their colleagues are less susceptible to influences by subsequent post-apology behavioral inconsistency, although trust continues to be harmed by repeat violations.

Categories: Trust